Summer school in bioethics in Manhattan

Interested in getting an overview of bioethics? A Manhattan-based NGO, the Global Bioethics Initiative, has organised a bioethics summer school in June and July. We asked Dr Ana Lita, the organiser, to explain what’s happening.

Global Bioethics Initiative works closely with the United Nations and its agencies. What interest does the UN have in bioethics?

The Global Bioethics Initiative is a not-for-profit international organization founded in 2011. We keep the international community, policy decision-makers, the media, and the public informed of important bioethical issues through educational activities, like the summer school. Late last year, for instance, we organised a seminar on organ trafficking and human rights.

GBI is associated with the UN Department of Information and we are hoping for formal affiliation with the UN Economic and Social Council. We hope that our programs will eventually have a global… click here to read whole article and make comments


Animal welfare abuses exposed at Nebraska research farm

Cows grazing at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in southern Nebraska

The Obama Administration has reacted swiftly to a scathing report on animal welfare at a Federal government laboratory in Nebraska in the New York Times. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack has demanded an updated animal welfare strategy within 60 days. An animal welfare ombudsman has been appointed for the unit.

The Times expose claimed that treatment of animals at the US Meat Animal Research Center was far below basic animal welfare standards. Instead of trying to minimise animal pain, the center’s goal was to maximize meat production. It described some stomach-churning experiments in animal breeding and care: sows which produced so many offspring that they were crushed to death; cows which bore twins and triplets which were deformed and stillborn; lambs left to be torn apart by coyotes,… click here to read whole article and make comments


“Virginity tests” unethical, says South African physician

While virginity tests for unmarried women have been universally regarded as unethical in Western countries, the practice is spreading in immigrant communities. Physicians in European countries have been asked to examine whether a girl’s hymen is intact, creating an ethical dilemma for them. If they comply, they may expose the girl to stigmatization, or even put her at risk of being the victim of an honour killing. If they certify her virginity regardless of the result, they will break the doctor’s compact of trust and honesty with patients.

Writing in the Journal of Medical Ethics, a South African physician argues that medical colleges should declare that virginity tests are unethical, thus giving doctors a right to refuse. The Quebec College of Physicians has already done this.

The author, Dr Kevin Gary Behrens, of the Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, University of the Witwatersrand, is familiar with… click here to read whole article and make comments


UK scientists call for debate on designer babies

Novel techniques of editing the genome have inspired some British scientists to call for a public debate on designer babies. Dr Tony Perry, of the University of Bath, recently announced that his team had successfully edited mouse DNA at the moment of conception. Using “Crispr” technology, it will be possible to delete and insert DNA in human embryos. "There's much speculation here, but it's not completely fanciful, this is not HG Wells, you can imagine people doing this soon [in animals],” he told the BBC. "At that time the HFEA [the UK's fertility regulator] will need to be prepared because they're going to have to deal with this issue."

Changing the DNA could remove genetic diseases from a bloodline, but it would also be genetic engineering.  "Obviously in the UK, this is not allowed and there would have to be a change in regulations, which I… click here to read whole article and make comments


The ethics of skin colour stereotypes

At the intersection of marketing and bioethics is the issue of perpetuating racist stereotypes. In many countries, especially South Asia, a preference for lighter skin predates European colonialism. By some estimates the “fairness market” in India for both men and women is worth more than US$500 million. Matchmaking sites often mention “wheaten skin” as a desirable feature of a prospective soulmate.

Unilever’s Fair & Lovely is the market leader in India. Overseas brands are pushing similar products: L’Oreal’s White Perfect Deep Whitening Double Essence, Revlon’s Absolute Whitening Skin Care Range, Estee Lauder’s White Light, Yves St. Laurent’s Blanc Absolute Serum, Elizabeth Arden’s Visible Whitening Pure Intensive and so on. The Vaseline brand created a controversy with a Facebook widget which allowed users to lighten their complexion.

Marketing academics from the University of Hull Business School in the UK and James Cook University in Australia have questioned the ethics of these products… click here to read whole article and make comments


Physician assisted death versus palliative care

Arguments against physician assisted suicide and euthanasia often turn on a claim about the need prioritize the development of adequate palliative care. A new article in the Journal of Medical Ethics provides a sophisticated critique of this archetypal argument.

Joaquín Barutta (Ruhr University, Germany) and Jochen Vollmann (Italian Hospital University, Argentina) discuss a number of variants of the ‘argument from palliative care’ – the view that the existence (or, in some cases, the non-existence) of palliative care means that we should not allow physician assisted death (PAD). Barrutta and Vollmann claim that each variant of the position is flawed.

One formulation, sometimes put forward by more cautious pro-euthanasia advocates, is that a lack of available palliative care limits a patient’s autonomy. If a patient does not have all the options available to him, then how can he make a truly free decision? Barutta and… click here to read whole article and make comments


Creation: a product for the masses?

What if we could democratise creation?

This may sound like a pretentious thought from a sci-fi movie, but one San Francisco geek believes we can make it a reality.

Austin Heinz, the founder of the start-up Cambrian Genomics, dreams of a future in which customers tinker with the genetic codes of plants and animals and even design new creatures on a computer.

In a makeshift laboratory in San Francisco, his synthetic biology company uses lasers to create custom DNA for major pharmaceutical companies. The synthetic biology is nothing new – what’s novel is Heinz desire to make the technology cheap, fast and affordable, such that private users can take advantage of it.

Anyone in the world that has a few dollars can make a creature, and that changes the game,” click here to read whole article and make comments


US Supreme Court to debate the use of new three-drug execution method

The Supreme Court of the United States has agreed to hear a case about the constitutionality of a new execution method being used in Oklahoma's correctional facilities.

Due to a shortage of customary execution drugs, Oklahoma's authorities are using a new combination of barbiturates to execute prisoners. The combination involves the drugs midazolam, intended to cause unconsciousness, rocuronium bromide, which works as a paralytic, and then potassium chloride that serves as a heart-stopping agent.

In the case Glossip v. Gross, No. 14-7955, three Oklahoma inmates are claiming that the new procedure violates the eighth amendment. They argue that it poses a significant risk of 'terrible suffering'.

Motivation for the case has come in part from the botched execution of Joseph Rudolph Wood in Arizona last July.

Medical experts testifying on behalf of the inmates at an evidentiary hearing said the effects of… click here to read whole article and make comments


China’s gender imbalance “most serious and prolonged in the world”

China has by far the greatest gender imbalance of any nation in the world, with conservative estimates from 2014 putting the ratio at 115.8 males to every 100 females.

The peak body responsible for family planning in the country, the National Health and Family Planning Commission, this week made its strongest statement yet on the crisis.

In a document published on the commission’s website, officials wrote, “China's sex imbalance problem among newborns is the most serious and prolonged in the world and the population it affects is the greatest”. They noted that there are over 33 million more men than women in the country.

Statistics published by the commission, suggest that the ratio has dropped from 121.18 in 2014 to 115.8 last year. Nevertheless, as the commission itself admits, “the gender ratio at birth… click here to read whole article and make comments


Dutch euthanasia clinic has knuckles rapped over tinnitus death

A Dutch end-of-life clinic has been reprimanded for the third time in a year for moving the goal posts for euthanasia. The Levenseindekliniek in The Hague helped a woman to die because she complained of severe tinnitus, or ringing in the ears. An independent review commission conceded that tinnitus could satisfy the criteria for legal euthanasia, but said that the clinic should have referred 47-year-old Gaby Olthuis, a mother of two, to a psychiatrist. The other two complaints concerned an elderly woman who did not want to enter a nursing home and an elderly psychiatric patient.

The symptoms that Ms Olthuis claimed to have were severe: she constantly heard the sound of screeching metal and even the rustle of opening a plastic bag hurt.

Levenseindekliniek opened in 2012 for patients who could not find a doctor who agreed to euthanase them. Since then they have helped… click here to read whole article and make comments


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