‘I can see what you’re saying’

Researchers in Germany and the US have managed to interpret the brain activity of epilepsy patients, to the extent that they can reconstruct utterances of words and full sentences.

The fascinating findings were outlined in a recent study published in the journal Frontiers of Neuroscience.

Seven US epilepsy patients voluntarily participated in the study, reading aloud sample texts while an electrode array was attached to their cortices, the outer layer of the brain, which had been exposed for epilepsy surgery.

Scientists were able to observe how the brain planned speech acts and then activated the muscles of the speech organs via the neurones in the cortex, a split second before the speech itself became audible.

The patients were given set texts, such as a speech by former US president John F. Kennedy, so the researchers would know which sounds were being uttered and when. They set up databases containing… click here to read whole article and make comments


French senators reject ‘deep sleep’ bill

The French senate has rejected a bill that would legalise ‘deep sedation’ – known as passive euthanasia by critics – of patients with a terminal and incurable illness. 

The bill, passed by a significant majority in the legislative assembly in March, would allow doctors to put patients into an irreversible comatose state and withdraw life-sustaining treatment. The bill goes even further, stipulating that doctors would be obliged to follow end-of-life instructions from patients regarding terminal sedation and stopping treatments if they agree the practices wouldn't improve their condition. 

Unlike the lower house, the senate was overwhelmingly against the bill, voting it down 196-87.

Les Républicains (LR) senators attempted to attenuate the bill (removing the clause “continue until death”) and have it passed, but a majority of left and centrist senators rejected the altered bill.  

It will now return to the legislative assembly for… click here to read whole article and make comments


IVF woes #2: older women

A new study of declining IVF success rates has confirmed the results of previous studies indicating a sharp drop in live births for women in their early 40s. 

The 12-year study, led by Dr Marta Devesa at the Hospital Universitari Quirón-Dexeus in Barcelona, Spain, indicated that the chances of women having a baby through IVF was only 1.3% in those aged 44 and above, but 24% in those aged 38 to 39.

Perhaps more significant, the study found that in a two-year period between 41-43, success rates halved. Among 40 to 41-year-olds the IVF success rate was 15.6%, a number that dropped to 6.6% in those aged 42 and 43.

The results from the large study involving 4,195 women and 5,841 IVF cycles are were presented at the annual meeting of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE).

Reflecting on the results, Dr. Devesa remarked: “women… click here to read whole article and make comments


IVF woes #1: Australia

As couples enter pristine Australian IVF clinics with their smiling staff and photos of bright-as-a-button babies, they are usually unaware of the harsh reality of IVF success rates. The statistics are worse than most would think.

Writing in The Conversation this week, lawyer and bioethicist Loretta Houlahan criticised the suppression of clinic success rates by the Australia and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Database (ANZARD). Each year ANZARD, an initiative of the National Perinatal Epidemiology and Statistics Unit and the Fertility Society of Australia (FSA), releases generalised figures of success rates in clinics. But individual clinics are not named, leaving would-be-parents in the dark about standards at an individual clinic. This is problematic, considering that individual clinic success rates vary wildly (from 4.0% to 30.9% according to the 2012 ANZARD report.

The current system perpetuates a lack of accountability, Houlahan remarks:

“Year after year, the poor performance of… click here to read whole article and make comments


Only connect: the Pope’s global bioethics

The publication of a document by Pope Francis on the environment on Thursday has created a media storm. Laudato Si’ (Be praised, in Italian) is an encyclical, the most authoritative form of Vatican instruction, and is addressed not just to Catholics but to “every person living on this planet”.

Francis hopes that it will influence a Paris summit on climate change at the end of the year. Given his immense popularity and moral prestige, some pundits believe that his contribution could be a game-changer.

In a sense, Laudato Si’ is also an extended meditation on bioethics. Ever since the birth of the discipline in the 1960s, there has been a tension between freedom bioethics with a focus on autonomy and the limits of human intervention on the body and global bioethics, which integrates human activity into ecology. Francis clearly favours the latter approach. The phrase “Everything… click here to read whole article and make comments


What should we do with frozen embryos?

As the number of unused frozen embryos in the US burgeons, policy analysts are questioning how authorities should deal with the hundreds of thousands that have been abandoned or have a disputed legal status.  

Even the New York Times have jumped on the issue, publishing a front-page story on the uncertain fate of frozen embryos in America.   

“…In storage facilities across the nation, hundreds of thousands of frozen embryos — perhaps a million — are preserved in silver tanks of liquid nitrogen. Some are in storage for cancer patients trying to preserve their chance to have a family after chemotherapy destroys their fertility. But most are leftovers from the booming assisted reproduction industry, belonging to couples like the Wattses [a couple that used IVF], who could not conceive naturally…”

The article discusses cases like… click here to read whole article and make comments


Sperm from ovaries

This one’s a little technical, but may very well have significant implications for scientist’s ability to influence sex determination in mammals.

Japanese researchers have discovered a way to influence the sexual fate of germ cells in medaka (rice fish).

The Scientist reports:

“Somatic cells in the gonads of a developing vertebrate provide germ cells with cues, such as hormones, to develop into sperm or eggs. Studying the ways these cues affect a germ cell’s commitment to become sperm or eggs, Toshiya Nishimura from the laboratory of Minoru Tanaka at the National Institute for Basic Biology in Okazaki, Japan, and colleagues uncovered a single gene that, when missing from female embryos of the Japanese rice fish, or medaka (Oryzias latipes), leads the fish to produce functional sperm soon after hatching.”

According to the researchers, the gene foxl3, is the sole determinant in the sexual fate of the rice fish. Foxl3 appears to allow… click here to read whole article and make comments


Peter Singer ‘disinvited’ from German philosophy festival

Peter Singer is in hot water in Germany again over his controversial views.

The Australian utilitarian philosopher began his royal progress through Europe well. In late May he added another two honorary doctorates -- from the Universities of Athens and of Bucharest -- to his extensive collection of awards and distinctions. From there he went to Berlin to receive the inaugural “Peter Singer Prize for Strategies to Reduce the Suffering of Animals”. He was introduced in glowing terms by Maneka Gandhi, Indian Minister of Women and Child Development, who is president of People for Animals in her own country. A German politician explained why he was so popular: “Peter Singer's ideas are logical, free from religion and easy to understand”.

However, these encomiums were lost on a gathering outside where about 250 people had assembled to protest the invitation. Their message was that Singer believes in… click here to read whole article and make comments


Nepalese surrogacy unearthed

The devastating earthquake in Nepal last April unearthed many harsh realities of life in the poverty stricken country – including the alleged exploitation of young Indian migrants by surrogacy agents in Kathmandu.

After the 2013 Indian government ban on the use of local surrogates by non-married, gay or single parents, surrogacy agents have turned to Nepal where the procedure is less regulated.

While Nepalese locals tend not to act as surrogates, there is no official government ban and scores of migrant women rent their wombs in cities like Kathmandu.

Surrogacy agencies in Nepal lure clients on the Internet with rates that are about a fourth of the prices in the United States. The packages cost between $35,000 and $65,000. The mothers earn between $5,000 and $6,000 of that, the price of a house in that part of Asia. The rest goes into the pockets of doctors and agencies.
click here to read whole article and make comments


The Rachel Dolezal controversy

In the past two weeks the US media has been in a frenzy over allegations that civil rights activist Rachel Dolezal is really ‘white’. Dolezal has gone on the defensive, claiming that she identifies as ‘black’ – but these claims have in turn been met with criticism from all quarters of American society.

So what does this debate really hinge on? In an Op-Ed in the Washington Post,  Pulitzer-prize winning report Amy Ellis Nutt claims that cultural identity has a strong biological substrate in different areas of the brain. This somehow should inform the way we view the Dolezal controversy.

“Individuals contain different selves, often contradictory selves, according to neuroscientists. There is no clump of grey matter or nexus of electrical activity in the brain that we can point to and say, “this is me, this is where my self is located.” Instead, we are spread out… click here to read whole article and make comments


Page 2 of 446 :  < 1 2 3 4 >  Last ›

 Search BioEdge

 Subscribe to BioEdge newsletter
rss Subscribe to BioEdge RSS feed

 from the editor: Pointed Remarks
Journalistic ethics at work
2 Aug 2015
Supreme Court fall-out
28 Jun 2015
Creating memories.
21 Jun 2015

 Be a fan of BioEdge on Facebook

 Best of the web

 Recent Posts
Planned Parenthood under fire over use of aborted tissue
1 Aug 2015
Psychologists shaken by report on torture program
1 Aug 2015
You’ve heard of half-wits. How about 5%-wits?
1 Aug 2015
At last, someone with a plan for the silver tsunami
1 Aug 2015
A wild swing at bioethics
1 Aug 2015